Sickle cell anemia, or sickle cell disease (SCD), is a red blood cell genetic disease (RBCs). RBCs are typically shaped like discs, allowing them the ability to pass across even the smallest blood vessels. With this disorder, though, the RBCs have an irregular crescent shape that resembles a sickle.
This makes them oily, stiff, and vulnerable to being stuck in tiny vessels that block blood from reaching various parts of the body. Pressure and tissue injury can be caused by this.
SCD is a recessive autosomal disorder. To get the disorder, you require two copies of the gene. You are said to have sickle cell disease if you have only one copy of the gene. Here ( warriors heart)
Typically, most of the symptoms of sickle cell anemia occur at a young age. They can start as early as 4 months old in infants, but they typically occur around the 6-month mark.
While there are different forms of SCD, all of them have similar symptoms that differ in severity. They include:
- excessive fatigue or irritability, from anemia
- fussiness, in babies
- bedwetting, from associated kidney problems
- jaundice, which is yellowing of the eyes and skin
- swelling and pain in hands and feet
- frequent infections
- pain in the chest, back, arms, or legs
The sickle-cell is of different types
Hemoglobin SS disease:
The most common form of sickle cell disease is hemoglobin SS disease. It happens when you inherit both parents’ copies of the hemoglobin S gene. Hemoglobin known as Hb SS forms this. As the most severe form of SCD, people with this form also experience the worst symptoms at a higher rate as well.
Hemoglobin SC disease:
The second most common form of sickle cell disease is hemoglobin SC disease. It happens when you inherit from one parent the Hb C gene and the other the Hb S gene. Hb SC individuals have similar symptoms to people with Hb SS. Anemia is less severe, however.
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Hemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia:
Hemoglobin SB+ (beta) thalassemia affects the gene development of beta-globin. Red blood cell size is reduced because there is less beta protein produced. If the gene Hb S is inherited, you will have beta-thalassemia of hemoglobin S. The symptoms aren’t as severe.
Hemoglobin SB 0 (Beta-zero) thalassemia
The 4th form of sickle cell disease is sickle beta-zero thalassemia. The gene beta-globin is also involved. It has symptoms similar to those of Hb SS anemia. Sometimes, however, the symptoms of beta zero thalassemias are more severe. A worse prognosis is associated with it.
Hemoglobin SD, hemoglobin SE, and hemoglobin SO
These types of sickle cell disease are rarer and usually don’t have severe symptoms.
Meanwhile the trait of Sickle Cells
It is said that people who only inherit one parent’s mutated gene (hemoglobin S) have a sickle cell phenotype. They do not have symptoms or have symptoms that are diminished.
Serious complications that arise when sickle cells block vessels in various areas of the body can be caused by SCD. Sickle cell crises are called painful or harmful blockages. Several circumstances can trigger them, including:
- changes in temperature
- poor hydration