Ovulation, Pregnancy and Menstruation.
OVULATION; Pregnancy and Menstruation.
Ovulation is the release of an egg from your ovary, into your Fallopian tube. It typically happens about 13-15 days before the start of each period. Just like a woman’s monthly period, the timing of ovulation can vary from cycle to cycle and you may have the odd cycle when you don’t ovulate at all.
Towards the end of puberty, you start having periods. Having a period means losing some blood through your vagina approximately once a month. When puberty is reached, the ovaries start producing estrogen and progesterone. Oestrogen and progesterone make the lining of the womb get thicker once a month and ready for getting pregnant.
Meanwhile, there are hormones also signaling the ovaries to produce and release an unfertilized egg. In most women, this happens once every 28 days or so. The idea is No FERTILIZATION equals GETTING YOUR PERIOD.
This means, if you don’t have sexual intercourse around the time of your ovulation ( when your ovaries release an egg), it’s unlikely that any sperm reaches and fertilizes your egg. So, the womb lining, which becomes thicker to prepare for pregnancy, is shed as MENSTRUAL BLOOD. Hence, the period, called MENSTRUATION.
CHANGES OVER TIME.
If you’ve only just started having periods, you might not ovulate yet. This is a natural way to protect you if your body isn’t ready for pregnancy just yet.
During the first year, you have your periods, you may only ovulate ( Release an egg) 20% of the time. So, if one has 12 periods a year, you probably only release an egg two or three times.
*Remember, every woman is different and once you’re sexually mature you can get pregnant any month.
*You can also get pregnant if you’ve never had a period. Don’t think just because you haven’t been having periods for long you don’t need to use Birth Control
Fertilization & Ovulation. Ovulation as defined earlier is the release of eggs from the ovaries.
When you ovulate, if there are no sperm cells in your Fallopian tube- either because you haven’t had sex or you used a contraceptive- then the eggs won’t be fertilized.
-Your body then gets rid of the lining of the womb, so mucus and blood come out of the vagina- Menstruation or having a Period.
In general, it lasts between 4-7 days. Your menstrual cycle runs from the first day of your period to the first day of your next period, which takes about 28days = 4weeks. But different individuals cycles vary between 21 and 42 days (3-6 weeks)
SIGNS OF OVULATION:-
Some women experience changes when they are ovulating, like;
- A change in vaginal discharge.
- A brief pain or dull ache felt on one side of the abdomen.
- An increased desire for sex
- A bloated abdomen
- A keener sense of vision, smell, or taste.
CAN OVULATION TAKE PLACE RIGHT AFTER PERIOD?
It depends on how many days are in your cycle. If you have a regular cycle- with 28 days from the start of one period to the start of the next- it’s less likely that you will ovulate right after your period.
You may bleed up to the seventh day of your cycle, and we know ovulation usually starts 12-16 days before your next period.
This means you ovulate between day 12 and 16 of your cycle.
If you have an irregular cycle- lasting just 21 days or as long as 42 days- it’s more likely that you could ovulate soon after your period.
For instance, in a 21-day cycle, you may stop bleeding on day 7 of your cycle, but you may ovulate between day 5 and day 9 of your cycle.
HOW TO WORK OUT WHEN TO OVULATE.
This takes a bit of a mathematical approach. You need to work backward from when your period starts. The time you’re likely to ovulate lasts 4 days, between 16 and 12 before the first day of your period.
If you have a period every 28 days, take 16 away from 28:
That means the 4 days you’re most likely to ovulate begins 12 days after your period starts.
*So your period starts on day one, and you ovulate between day 12 and 16. If you have a period every 21 days, take 16 away from 21:-
That means the four days you’re likely to ovulate begin five days after your period starts. So your period starts on day one, and you ovulate between day 5 and day 9.
COULD I OVULATE WITHOUT HAVING A PERIOD? You could ovulate without having a period if:-
- Your body weight is very low
- You are breastfeeding
- You’re approaching menopause.
During ovulation, an unfertilized egg cell travels out of one of the ovaries and down the Fallopian tube to the womb.
To get pregnant, you have intercourse with a man around the time you ovulate- usually about 14days after the first day of your last period. After sex, the sperm swims up the vagina and into the Fallopian tubes. If there’s an egg waiting in one of the Fallopian tubes, the tiny sperm tries to burrow their way inside it. If one sperm gets inside it. If one sperm gets inside the egg, it’s fertilized.
*The fertilized egg then moved down the Fallopian tube to the womb is ready to receive the egg.
** If the fertilized egg nestles into the lining of the womb, you become pregnant.
- Sperm can live in the vagina opening for up to 5 days after sex.
- If you have unprotected sex during your period and you ovulate soon after your period, the sperm can fertilize the egg, then pregnant.
Facts And Basics Of Men’s Ejaculation :Part 2
Delayed Ejaculation & Erectile Dysfunction.
Studies have it that guys who don’t ejaculate frequently could have a higher
Delayed Ejaculation & Erectile Dysfunction.
Studies have it that guys who don’t ejaculate frequently could have a higher risk of prostate cancer.
Delayed Ejaculation (DE) is typically a self-reported diagnosis, there’s no firm consensus on what constitutes a reasonable time frame for reaching orgasm. Men who ejaculate often may have a lower risk of prostate cancer than their peers who don’t do it as frequently (A US study suggests).
Ejaculate frequency is, to some extent, a measure of overall health status in that men at the very low end of ejaculation 0-3 times per month, were more likely to have other (medical problems) and die prematurely from causes other than prostate cancer,” ( Jennifer Rider)
Frequent ejaculation through sex or masturbation probably results from other factors that contribute to good health, such as a healthy diet and normal weight, which might also lower the risk of cancer, (John Gore).
Male orgasm is defined as a subjective, perceptual-cognitive event of peak sexual pleasure that in normal conditions coincides with the movement of ejaculation. The presence of a normal sexual excitement phase is a prerequisite for male orgasmic Disorder (MOD). In other words, if the absence of orgasm follows a decreased desire for sexual activity, an aversion to genital sexual desire disorder, sexual aversion disorder, or male erectile disorder, or male erectile disorder might be more appropriate, even if they all have a final common outcome ( i.e anorgasmia ) read here facts And Basics on Men’s Ejaculation: Part 1.
People with MOD can achieve firm erection and have normal sexual intercourse with penetration. Some patients reporting MOD with intercourse can achieve orgasm through manual or oral stimulation or at least report orgasm through “Nocturnal Emission” (Wet Dream). A report of the generalized, lifelong MOD with no orgasm at all ( across an array of stimulative techniques) suggests an organic etiology.
Sexual functioning involves a complex interaction among biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors, and the complexity of this interaction makes it difficult to ascertain the clinical etiology of sexual dysfunction. Before any diagnosis of sexual dysfunction is made, problems that are explained by a nonsexual mental disorder or other stressors must first be addressed. See HERE
Thus, in addition to the criteria for delayed ejaculation, the following must be considered:
◦ Partner factors ( E.g partner sexual problems or health issues)
◦ Relationship factors ( E.g communication problems, different levels of desire for sexual activity, or partner violence).
◦ Individual vulnerability factors ( E.g history of sexual or emotional abuse existing psychiatric condition such as depression, or stressors such as job loss.
◦ Cultural or religious factors ( E.g inhibitions or conflicted attitude regarding sexuality).
◦ Medical factors ( E.g an existing medical condition or the effects of drugs or medication).
*Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with both decreased sexual desires and a decreased ability to reach orgasm in males.
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION (ED)
Also, the term “IMPOTENCE”, is the inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance” or “The consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/or maintain penile erection sufficient for sexual satisfaction.
Although some cases, particularly in younger men, may primarily reflect psychological concerns, in many cases “ED” results from organic disease- Notably cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Thus, ED may serve as a marker for medical conditions in need of treatment. Regardless of the cause, however, ED can have negative effects on patients’ self-esteem, relationships, and overall quality of life.
*Some signs and Symptoms:
The first step in the management of ED is a thorough history that includes the following;
◦ Sexual history
◦ Medical history
◦ Psychological history
Furthermore, A focused examination entails evaluation of the following;
◦ Blood pressure
◦ Peripheral pulses
◦ Status of the genitalia and prostate
◦ Size and texture of the testes
◦ Presence of the epididymis and vas Deference
◦ Abnormalities of the penis (E.g hypospadias)
There’s a strong correlation between hypertension and ED. Meanwhile, treatment options for ED may include the following;
◦ Sexual counseling, if no organic causes can be found for the dysfunction.
◦ Oral medications
◦ Injected, implanted, or topically applied medication.
◦ External vacuum and construction devices.
Many patients with ED also have cardiovascular disease, thus, treatment of ED in these patients must take cardiovascular risk into account.
Also, trauma to the pelvic blood vessels or nerve can lead or result in Erectile Dysfunction.
Facts And Basics on Men’s Ejaculation: Part 1.
This simply means expulsion in Biology. It is often used to pertain to the process of releasing semen, which is the thick fluid comprised of sperm cells and secretion from the sexual glands at orgasm, through the male reproductive organ.
Different studies dealing with ejaculation view this process as a part of the male copulatory behavior. The anatomy-physiological mechanism is explained under the notion that ejaculation is more than genitals and an excurrent duct system; thus it’s also included the participation of the striated perineal musculature.
Ejaculation is a sexual spinal reflex, it is inhibited tonically by supraspinal structures. Such Supraspinal modulation May explain the prudent sperm allocation, by which males adjust the number of sperm per ejaculation while copulating under distinct competitive scenarios.
In some mammals, ejaculate components facilitate seminal coagulation, an adaptation that may increase male reproductive fitness. There’s a reflection of the so-called human ejaculatory disturbances, which from an ecophysiological perspective could represent advantages instead of sexual malfunction as are recognized under the medical view.
Copulatory Behavior: the ejaculatory prelude.
Male sexual behavior comprises activities aimed at inseminating the female and fertilizing her ova.
Two(2) basic components are accepted to constitute this sex behavior:
◦ Sexual drive, libido, courtship, or appetitive aspect involves the behavioral expression used by males to gain access to the females. ( E.g fighting for territory, advertising his physical attributes, or providing food to females).
◦ The second aspect/ component is known as performance, potency, or consummatory aspect and corresponds when copulation occurs, males spend much more time and energy seeking for copulation than the actual time and energy used to copulate (Sachs et Meisel, 88’)
Seminal emission refers to the secretion of seminal plasma from the accessory sexual glands as the results of the peristaltic contraction of their smooth muscles; the transferring of seminal plasma and spermatozoa located into the epididymis cauda into the urethra then ensues. Thus, this process involves secretion of seminal plasma from epithelial cells and the accessory sexual glands, as well as contraction of the vas deference to move seminal plasma and spermatozoa to the proximal urethra simultaneously to these parasympathetic and sympathetic actions, the urethral smooth muscles contract until closing the bladder’s neck preventing, under normal circumstances, retrograde Ejaculation.
Once emission is completed, the ejaculate is ready to be expelled through the urethra.
Seminal expulsion then occurs when the semen is rapidly and forcefully advanced along the urethra and spring out through the penile meatus.
Adequate propulsion of semen requires the coordinated contraction of the external urethral sphincter and the bulbocavernosus, the strained muscles surrounding the urethra. Also, contraction of other perineal and pelvic muscles adjacent to the base of the penis contributes during seminal expulsion.
In humans, ejaculation is associated with what has been called orgasm, a subjective pleasurable feeling reported by men.
Ejaculation of other mammals is also associated with reward. (Kippin $ Pfaus, 01’)
Ecology Of Ejaculation.
After going through the preceding sections, the reader may find him/ herself wondering how comes that a few seconds of ultimate pleasure can be so important to define each male’s reproductive success.
To understand this essential aspect of ejaculation, we must take into consideration the cost of gamete production. Although conventional wisdom suggests that the metabolic cost of producing spermatozoa is relatively low. Some recent evidence showing increased longevity following impaired gamete production argues otherwise.
For a male to use their reproductive resources cautiously, he must judge a variety of ecological possibilities of achieving successful paternity. The physical attributes of the female, the likeliness of a female to be a good mother and the magnitude of promiscuity of the female he is pursuing are just a few examples of such factors. Prediction on the environmental elements such as food availability and climatic contingencies must also be for seeing, since a drastic change of them may jeopardize the survival of offspring and therefore, the long-term male’s inclusive fitness.
Seminal plugs are found in some mammalian species, particularly in those in which females copulate with different partners. Because multi-partner mating results in sperm competition among males.
The evolution of certain biochemical mechanisms enhances seminal coagulation to copulatory plug formation ( Dixon & Anderson, 02’)
The function of the copulatory plug is to prevent backflow of semen and or to interfere with the ejaculates of other males.
Upon ejaculation, sperm are expelled first, followed by secretions from the accessory sexual plug. This plug adheres to the cervix and vaginal walls and is necessary for sperm transport.
Delayed Ejaculation (DE); there’s a spectrum of DE disorder ranging from increased latency to ejaculation to absent ejaculation and including DE, retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and Anorgasmia( persistent or recurrent difficulty achieving orgasm). DE is typically self-reported while there is no firm consensus on what constitutes a reasonable time frame for reaching orgasm, men with latencies beyond 25-30 minutes are assumed to suffer from DE. Some conditions that may predispose DE are; Diabetes Mellitus, hypertension, pain syndrome, shortness of breath, angina pectoris, muscle weakness, cigarette smoking,g and excessive consumption of alcohol or use of other recreational drugs.
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